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Bedrock and Building Stones - Geology Exposed in the City of Sunderland (2nd edition)Up to roughly the end of the 19th century, most buildings were constructed from local materials. A quarry or pit a mile or two away meant a relatively cheap supply of building material. It also meant that what went into the construction of a building reflected the nature of the underlying rocks! This is particularly true of rural areas, but cities and towns with good rocky foundations such as Sunderland and Newcastle also made the most of the local natural resources.Sadly, from about the start of the 20th century, use of local materials went into decline. Production of quality building stone became more and more expensive and was ousted by cheaper imports from elsewhere in the UK, and increasingly from abroad.In Sunderland, in North East England, you can see it all. Sunderland has an amazingly rich and fascinating geological history that has given the city and its surroundings a wide range of rock types as its foundation. There are still buildings of the 18th and 19th century (and even earlier) of which the city's inhabitants are justly proud, that have used these local materials.The second edition has been updated and expanded for an ever-changing city environment. A full account is given of the area's geological history and how it has affected the city's development, and also environmental issues. This is a study of locally sourced and imported building stones and where to see them and includes detailed notes for six city walks, each with a take-away "geological highlights sheet" that takes you to see both the building stones and the city's unique geology.
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